Ancient Babylonian Astronomy Text Changes History

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This Babylonian tablet, written in cuneiform script, contains geometric calculations used to track the motions of Jupiter.

A newly-translated tablet reveals that ancient Babylonian astronomers were using methods far more advanced than imagined for that era.

The ancient Babylonians were calculating planetary displacement arcs over 1,000 years before the method’s ‘invention’.

Analysis of the tablets reveals that the Babylonian star gazers were able to calculate the position of Jupiter using geometric techniques previously believed to have been first used some 1,400 years later in 14th century Europe.

The tablets, housed at the British Museum, are believed to have been unearthed from an archaeological dig in Mesopotamia, the present day Iraq, sometime in the 1800s.

Gizmodo reports: It’s a well-known fact that the Babylonians were skilled mathematical astronomers, who preserved their knowledge on hundreds of clay tablets. But when astroarchaeologist Matthieu Ossendrijver of Humboldt University in Berlin translated an unstudied text on Jupiter, he discovered something astonishing. To track the gas giant’s path across the sky, the Babylonians used a geometric technique—the so-called trapezoid procedure—that’s a cornerstone of modern calculus. Until now, this method was believed to have been developed in medieval Europe, some 1,400 years later.

“This shows just how highly developed this ancient culture was,” Ossendrijver, whose discovery appears in today’s Science, told Gizmodo. “I don’t think anybody expected something like this would be discovered in a Babylonian text.”

The text belongs to a collection of thousands of clay tablets, inscribed with cuneiform and excavated in Iraq during the 19th century. By translating and studying them over the past century, archeologists have learned a great deal about Babylonians, including their advanced system of astronomy, which grew out of the development of the zodiac around 400 BCE.

Also priests, Babylonian astronomers believed that all Earthly happenings—the weather, the price of grain, the level of the rivers—were connected to the motion of the planets and stars. And of all the forces influencing our world from above, none were as important as Marduk, the patron deity of Babylon. He was associated with Jupiter.

As Ossendrijver explains in his paper, approximately 340 known Babylonian astronomy tablets are filled with data on planetary and lunar positions, arranged in rows and columns like a spreadsheet. Another 110 are procedural, with instructions describing the arithmetical operations (addition, subtraction, and multiplication) used to compute the positions of celestial objects.

But one collection—a set of four tablets on the position of Jupiter—appears to preserve portions of a procedure for calculating the area under a curve. These texts are fragmentary, and for decades their astronomical significance went unnoted. In 2014, Ossendrijver discovered their instruction book: a tablet, he said, that “just fell through the cracks,” and has been collecting dust in the British Museum since 1881.

One of the fragmentary Babylonian texts (left) showing a portion of a calculaton for determining Jupiter’s displacement across the ecliptic plane as the area under a time-velocity curve (right). Via Mathieu Ossendrijver
One of the fragmentary Babylonian texts (left) showing a portion of a calculaton for determining Jupiter’s displacement across the ecliptic plane as the area under a time-velocity curve (right). Via Mathieu Ossendrijver

The now-decoded “text A” describes a procedure for calculating Jupiter’s displacement across the ecliptic plane, the path that the Sun appears to trace through the stars, over the course of a year. According to the text, the Babylonians did so by tracking Jupiter’s speed as a function of time and determining the area under a time-velocity curve.

Until now, the earliest origin of this concept dated to mid 14th-century Europe. “In 1350, mathematicians understood that if you compute the area under this curve, you get the distance travelled,” Ossendrijver said. “That’s quite an abstract insight about connection between time and motion. What is shown by [these texts] is that this insight came about in Babylonia.”

In Ossendrijver’s view, it’s unlikely that this method survived the vast gulf of time between the disappearance of Babylonian culture and its emergence in medieval Europe. “I think it’s more likely they [Europeans] developed it independently,” he said, noting that the trapezoid procedure doesn’t appear to have been popular among Babylonian astronomers, and that much of their knowledge was lost when the culture died out around 100 A.D.

“Who knows what else is hidden in the thousands of tablets lying in in museums around the world?” Ossendrijver continued. “This is part of the history of science, and I hope it raises awareness of the value of protecting that heritage.”

7 Comments

  1. Really great information. There have been a lot of societies whose star gazers figured things out pretty well. I’ve often wrote the Ancients knew much more than we give them credit for. Given the Mayans believe we’re the Fifth Generation on this planet the questions become how much the previous four knew and what ultimately happened to them?

  2. Really great information. There have been a lot of societies whose star gazers figured things out pretty well. I’ve often wrote the Ancients knew much more than we give them credit for. Given the Mayans believe we’re the Fifth Generation on this planet the questions become how much the previous four knew and what ultimately happened to them?

  3. The subject of this article is great, though there are many errors. The Babylonians practiced ASTROLOGY not astronomy. Astrology is based on a flat earth, astronomy is based on a round earth. Our modern scientists have deemed astrology as incorrect, as it was based on a flat earth, yet they practiced Astrology for thousands of years, and astronomy only for the last 500. Why were the Chaldeans known as both the priests and astrologers of their time (around 3000BC, not 400BC)? Apparently they were always wrong, and we have only became right recently (yet this article confirms elsewise). Astrology has been vital in witchcraft and Satanism for thousands of years, astrology affects ones ability to summon demons. The Chaldean religion later morphed into the Jewish Kabala and Hindu Avesta, all books for pagans and those seeking to bring forth “familiar spirits”. The Aryans brought this religion to India and Persia. Have you guys ever heard of Adolf Hitler? Have you ever noticed the swastika is also used in India? (simply google India swastika). Buddhism blossomed from the turd Hinduism planted, both believe in Brahman, but the Hindus worship Shiva and Vishnu and Krishna to name a few, and the Buddhist believe Brahman was reincarnated as Siddhartha the first Budda. These my friends, are the mystery religions of Babylon as mentioned in revelations of the true gods book. The mystery religions began with Nimrod and his wife (around 3000BC, the Chaldeans were the Babylonian priests), again from the bible. Nimrod was also called Tammuz (false legend of Nimrod reborn, myth of the dying god), and the jewish calendar celebrates the month of Jun/Jul after Tammuz (google it). The signs are everywhere, you just have to put the pieces together and avoid the massive amount of deception 🙂

    • You, my friend, have no idea what you’re talking about and are confusing many things with other unrelated things. First, the texts PROVE they knew and used at least some astronomy, as this discovery proves. Also Aristophanes knew the earth was round in 300 B.C. why wouldn’t they have know this, since they knew so much else and studied the topic? There are far too many errors in your comment for me to comment on now, but you have no idea what you are talking about here.

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